Area intensities

Indicators (DE/land area and DMC/land area)

showing the scale of the physical economy in relation to the land area, and thus vis-à-vis the natural environment.

Asset accounts

Asset accounts include the totals of all assets of a specific economic sector (e.g. natural assets such as water, minerals, timber and others) at a specific point in time.

Asset accounts include the totals of all assets of a specific economic sector (e.g. natural assets such as water, minerals, timber and others) at a specific point in time. In asset accounting, all assets of a specific economic sector are added up. Similar to the system of national accounts, asset accounts are also used in environmental accounting.


Domestic Extraction

Domestic (material) extraction includes all solid, liquid and gaseous materials (excl. water and air) extracted as raw material source from the national environment and used in the national economy within in a specific period of time.

Dissipative losses

consist of the components tyre abrasion and brake abrasion.

Dissipative losses refer exclusively to materials that are dispersed into the environment during the use of cars and other vehicles.


Domestic Material Consumption

Domestic Material Consumption measures the total amount of material directly used in an economy. As opposed to -> DMI, DMC includes exports as well. DMC thus equals domestic extraction plus physical imports minus physical exports. It is measured in tonnes. Like DMI, DMC is one of the major indicators in material flow accounting.


Direct Material Input

Direct Material Input measures all materials (excl. water and air) which are of economic value and used in a national economy. It equals domestic (used) extraction plus physical imports, without including hidden flows arising in the production of goods outside a country. It is measured in tonnes. Like DMC, DMI is one of the indicators used in material flow accounting.

Domestic Extraction Used

Domestic Extraction Used indicates which type and quantities of materials are extracted as raw material source from the natural environment in a country within a given period of time.

Together with the material imports, Domestic Extraction Used forms the DMI.

Domestic resource dependency

This indicator (= DE/DMC) shows the ratio of domestic extraction to domestic material consumption

and thus the dependence of the physical economy on domestic raw material supply.


Domestic Processed Output

The Domestic Processed Output indicator includes all materials which have been extracted within a country, as well as imported, and which have been used in a national economy, before flowing into the national environment. Included are air emissions, deposited wastes, water emissions and material flows arising as a result of product use (e.g. tyre abrasion, brake dust = dissipative flows). Recycled materials such as waste glass, waste paper and scrap material are not included, as they do not leave the economic cycle.

Economy-wide material flow accounts

A method for describing the exchange process between society and nature by displaying material throughputs.

The interactions between the environment and society are described in economy-wide material flow accounts by providing an overview of the materials extracted from the national environment (i.e. raw or source materials excl. water and air) and material outputs to the national environment on the one hand, and of material flows between the national economy and the economy of the rest of the world (imports and exports) on the other.


Environmental goods and services sector

The term environmental production and services includes all activities that are undertaken to measure, avoid, reduce, limit or remove environmental damage. Included are environment-friendly or less harmful technologies, as well as techniques and practices which reduce environmental risks and minimise environmental pollution and resource use.

Environmental taxes

Environmental taxes are an instrument for steering an economy in favour of sustainable development.

The aim of environmental taxes is to provide incentives for producers and consumers to limit or reduce environmental pressures and to encourage a responsible use of natural resources. As agreed at international level, there are four main types of environmental taxes:

  • Energy taxes such as: mineral oil tax, energy levy, special crude oil levy
  • Transport taxes such as:standard fuel consumption tax, motor vehicle tax, road use charge, engine-related insurance tax
  • Taxes on environmental pollution, especially abandoned hazardous sites levy
  • Resource taxes such as: property tax B, hunting and fishing tax, landscape protection and nature conservation levies


ESEA stands for the European Strategy for Environmental Accounts which was developed in 2003.

According to this Strategy, the purpose of environmental accounts is the measurement of the objectives of sustainable development, the Europe 2020 Strategy and of EU environmental policy. ESEA is updated regularly by Eurostat, in cooperation with the Member States.


Eurostat is the statistical office of the European Union.

Eurostat is situated in Luxembourg. It is a Directorate-General (DG) of the European Commission under the Commissioner for Administrative Affairs, Audit and Anti-Fraud. Eurostat compiles, amongst others, statistics for the countries of the EU.


Gross Value Added

Gross Value Added describes the added value of goods produced in the production process (gross output minus intermediate consumption).

Hidden flows (associated to imports)

Hidden flows are material flows that are not considered in the calculation of the DMI.

Hidden flows refer to materials moved or used in the country of origin for the purpose of producing materials or goods that are imported by Austria. These materials remain in the country of origin.


An index is a numerical measure used in quantification that makes it possible to compare the development of different quantities.

The base year needs to be the same every time (e.g. 1990 = 100).

Indirect material flows associated with imports

Indirect material flows associated with imports refer to the amount of unused materials extracted from the environment in the rest of the world that is associated with physical imports.

Included are mainly hidden flows associated with imports without trade value, e.g. materials that are used in other countries for the production and transport of imported goods.

Kyoto Protocol

Climate change agreement adopted at the World Climate Summit in Kyoto (Japan) on 11.12.1997 by initially 158 countries.

The aim of this agreement is to halt global warming by reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Kyoto target

The Kyoto target is the commitment as set out under the Kyoto Protocol.

The Kyoto target for Austria is to reduce greenhouse gases by an average of thirteen per cent for the period 2008-2012 compared to the base year 1990.


Economic accounts for agriculture and forestry

London Group

The London Group deals with environmental accounting methods at international level.

It is composed of the United Nations (UNO), the European Commission, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the World Bank, and of statistical and scientific experts. Its aim is to develop and revise handbooks on methods for establishing environmental accounts.

Material efficiency

see also: Resource efficiency = GDP/DMC

Material flow accounts

Material flow accounts measure the flows of a variable within a fixed period of time (usually one year or other time periods).

Like the system of national accounts, environmental accounting also uses material flow accounts.

Material intensity

Material intensity is an indicator showing the ratio of Domestic Material Consumption (DMC) to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). (= DMC/BIP)

It visualises how many kilogrammes of material are used or moved in order to obtain one euro of added value.

Material productivity

This indicator (= GDP/DMC) shows how much value added can be generated per unit of material input

and is thus the inverse of material intensity.


Material Flow Accounts

Material flow accounts describe the interactions between the environment and society by showing the resources that are used in a national economy.


National Accounting Matrix including Environmental Accounts

NAMEA combines classifications of economic and environmental data to enable a direct comparison of the parameters from both sectors.

Net additions to stock

This indicator measures the physical growth rate of a national economy

by adding materials which increase the capital stocks of that national economy in a given time period (e.g. buildings, infrastructure, durable consumer goods), and deducting old materials which are removed from the capital stocks in the same time period (e.g. demolition of old buildings, disposal of old durable consumer goods).


Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

Physical trade balance (PTB)

equals physical imports minus physical exports

and thus reflects the difference between these two flows.

Resource efficiency

or material efficiency = GDP/DMC

Resource efficiency describes the relationship between economic growth and resource use by demonstrating how much economic value-added can be produced with one unit of material input.


Raw Material Consumption

Raw material consumption is the total amount of all materials used, including the materials used as inputs for imports and exports (intermediate consumption) in the relevant country of production


Raw Material Equivalents

The raw material equivalents of imports and exports consist of all those material inputs that are needed in the production of traded goods (intermediate material consumption), plus the mass of the imports and exports themselves. RME are equivalent to all those raw materials that form the basis of an import or export, irrespective of the economy in which the resources are used in the production process.


Service and Structural Business Statistics

Stiglitz-Sen-Fitoussi Commission

The Stiglitz-Sen-Fitoussi Commission deals with the question how the prosperity, quality of life or progress of a society can be described in a better way than by the GDP alone.

The Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress was created by the French President Sarkozy in February 2008.

Trade intensities

These indicators (= imports/DMC and exports/DMC) show the import and export intensities of physical economies

and are thus also an indicator of the extent to which an economy is dependent on imports and foreign markets.

Unused Domestic (material) Extraction (UDE)/ Domestic Extraction

Unused Domestic Extraction includes all those materials that are extracted from the national environment but not used in the national economy, i.e. they remain in the environment.

Examples are: unused material excavated during civil engineering work and construction, unused material extracted in mining, unused tree residues from felling or unused parts of harvested crops.


General classification of economic activities

ÖNACE is a national system which classifies enterprises for statistical purposes according to economic activities. Private households are not included in this classification, except where they are employers or producers at the same time.